1. Procedural & Inverse Procedural Modeling
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Procedural model is a model represented by a code - for example C++, Python, L-system, or a shape grammar. The objective of inverse procedural modeling is to find a code that would represent a given structure. We have presented several results in generation of inverse procedural models for regular structures that are represented as L-systems, 3D models of biological trees that were encoded as parameters of a simulation system that generates them. We have also presented successful application of IPM in cities and complex urban layouts. Another interesting problem is to use inverse procedural models that were learnt from existing structures in artistic design - such as interactive "brushing" of virtual worlds.

WorldBrush: Interactive Example-based Synthesis of Procedural Virtual Worlds
Emilien, A., Vimont, U., Cani, M.P., Poulin, P., and Benes, B.
ACM Trans. Graph 34(4)

Proceduralization of Buildings at City Scale
Demir, I., Aliaga, D. G., and Benes, B.
3D Vision (3DV), pp 456 - 463 (DOI: 10.1109/3DV.2014.31)

Inverse Procedural Modeling of Trees
Stava, O., Pirk, S., Kratt, J., Chen, B., Mech, R., Deussen, O., and Benes, B.
Computer Graphics Forum, Vol 33(6), pp. 118-131, (doi: 10.1111/cgf.12282)

Inverse Design of Urban Procedural Models
Vanegas, C, A., Garcia-Dorado, I., Aliaga, D., Benes, B., and Waddell, P.
ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 28 (5), 111

Guided Procedural Modeling
Benes, B., Stava, O., Mech, R., and Miller, G.
Computer Graphics Forum (Eurographics), pp:325-334

Building Reconstruction using Manhattan-World Grammars
Vanegas, C.A., Aliaga, D.G., and Benes, B.
Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) 8 pages

Inverse Procedural Modeling by Automatic Generation of L-systems
Stava, O., Benes, B., Mech, R., Aliaga, D.G., and Kristof, P.
Computer Graphics Forum (Eurographics), 29:2, 10 pages


2. Simulation of Natural Phenomena
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One of the long open problems in Computer Graphics is visual simulation of Nature. Although the output of those simulations are 3D geometric models, usually an in-depth understanding of the underlying processes is necessary. We have long history in simulation of virtual erosion that generates visually plausible terrains. We have developed several models for river generations and terrain modeling in general. Another interesting area is simulation of vegetation. Trees and plants are complex systems with shape defined by competition for resources, among which light is the most important one. By incorporating competition for light into the tree developmental process (growth) we can simulate very complex tree shapes as well as ecosystems of trees competing for resources. We have also presented models of trees growing under the influence of wind.

Terrain Modeling from Feature Primitives
Génevaux, J.D., Galin, E., Peytavie, A., Guérin, E., Briquet, C., Grosbellet, F., and Benes, B.
Computer Graphics Forum

Woodification: User-Controlled Cambial Growth Modeling
Kratt, J., Spicker, M., Guayaquil, A., Fiser, M., Pirk, S., Deussen, O., Hart, J.C., and Benes, B.
Computer Graphics Forum, 34 (2), 361 - 372, May 2015

Windy Trees: Computing Stress Response for Developmental Tree Models
Pirk, S., Niese, T., Hadrich, T., Benes, B., and Deussen O.
ACM Trans. Graph. 33, 6, Article 204 (November 2014), 11 pages

Terrain Generation using Procedural Models Based on Hydrology
Genevaux, JD., Galin, E., Guerin, E., Peytavie, A., and Benes, B.
ACM Transactions on Graphics, 32 (4), July 2013

Plastic Trees: Interactive Self-Adapting Botanical Tree Models
Pirk, S., Stava, O., Kratt, JU., Said, M.A., Neubert, B., Mech, R,. Benes, B., and Deussen. O.
ACM Transactions on Graphics, 31 (4)

Authoring Hierarchical Road Networks
Galin, E., Peytavie, A., Guerin, E., and Benes, B.
Computer Graphics Forum Vol, 30 (7), pp.2021-2030

Urban Ecosystem Design
Benes, B., Massih, M-A., Jarvis, P., Aliaga, D.G., and Vanegas, C.
ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games (I3D) 2011, pp: 167-174

Interactive Modeling of Virtual Ecosystems
Bedrich, B., Andrysco, N., and Stava, O.
Eurographics Workshop on Natural Phenomena, pp. 9-16

Hydraulic Erosion Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Kristof, P., Benes, B., Krivanek, J., and Stava,O.
Computer Graphics Forum (Eurographics 2009) vol. 28 No.2, pp. 219-228

Interactive Terrain Modeling Using Hydraulic Erosion
Stava, O., Benes, B., Brisbin, M., and Krivanek, J.
Eurographics/SIGGRAPH Symposium on Computer Animation, pp.201-210

Occlusion-Based Snow Accumulation Simulation
Foldes D., and Benes, B.
The 4th Workshop on Virtual Reality Interactions and Physical Simulation - Vriphys'07, pp. 35-41

Real-Time Erosion Using ShallowWater Simulation
Benes, B.
Real-Time Erosion Using ShallowWater Simulation
The 4th Workshop on Virtual Reality Interactions and Physical Simulation - Vriphys'07, pp. 43-50

Hydraulic Erosion
Benes B., Tešinsky, V., Hornys, J., and Bhatia, S.K.
Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 17(2), pp: 99-108

Granular Material Interactive Manipulation: Touching Sand with Haptic Feedback
Benes, B., Dorjgotov, E., Arns, L., and Bertoline, G.
Proceedings of the 14-th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision pp. 295-304

Table Mountains by Virtual Erosion
Bedrich B., and Arriaga, X.
Table Mountains by Virtual Erosion
Eurographics Workshop on Natural Phenomena, 2005, pp 33-40

Virtual Climbing Plants Competing for Space
Benes, B., and Millan, E.
IEEE Computer Animation

Layered Data Representation for Visual Simulation of Terrain Erosion
Benes, B., and Forsbach, R
IEEE SCCG2001 Budmerice, Slovakia

An Efficient Estimation of Light in Simulation of Plant Development
Benes, B.
Eurographics Workshop on Computer Animation and Simulation, Springer-Verlag, 1996


3. 3D Printing
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Additive manufacturing presents novel problems to Computer Graphics. Many 3D objects are not designed with 3D printability in mind and can break during and after printing or their generation may take a very long time. We have developed various novel approaches for optimization of 3D object shape to allow structural strength, better generation of support structures, and 3D packing.

Clever Support: Efficient Support Structure Generation for Digital Fabrication
Vanek, J., Garcia, J., and Benes, B.
Computer Graphics Forum Vol 33(5), (Special issue of Symposium on Geometry Processing) (DOI: 10.1111/cgf.12437)

PackMerger: A 3D Print Volume Optimizer
Vanek, J., Garcia, J., Benes, B., Mech, R., Carr, N., Stava, O., and Miller, G
Computer Graphics Forum, Vol 33(6), pp: 322-332 (doi: 10.1111/cgf.12353)

Stress relief: improving structural strength of 3D printable objects
Stava, O., Vanek, J., Benes, B., Carr, N., and Mech, R.
ACM Trans. Graph. 31, 4, Article 48, 11 pages


4. Other Topics
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Our algorithms utilize modern GPUs and we have developed several algorithms that improve techniques in computer animation, level of detail generation, rendering, and visualization.

Motion retiming by using bilateral time control surfaces
Yoo, I., Abdul-Massih, M., Ziamtsov, I., Hassan, R., and Benes, B.
Computers & Graphics, 47 (0), 59 - 67

A Hybrid Level of Detail Representation for Large-Scale Urban Scenes Rendering
Zhou, S., Yoo, I., Benes, B., and Chen, G.
Computer Animation and Virtual Worlds 25(3-4), pp. 245--255

A Flexible Pinhole Camera Model for Coherent Non-Uniform Sampling
Popescu, V., Benes, B., Rosen, P., Cui, J., and Wang, L.
Computer Graphics & Applications 34(4), pp. 30-41

Sketching Human Character Animations by Composing Sequences from Large Motion Database
Yoo, I., Vanek J., Nizovtseva, M., Adamo-Villani, N., and Benes, B.
The Visual Computer Vol 30(2), pp 213-227

Perceptual Importance of Lighting Phenomena in Rendering of Animated Water
Bojrab M., Abdul-Massih M., and Benes B.
ACM Transactions on Applied Perception 10, 1, Article 2, 18 pages

Connected Component Labeling in CUDA
Stava, O., and Benes, B.
Chapter in GPU Computing Gems

Visual Exploration of the Vulcan CO2 Data
Andrysco, N., Gurney, K.R, Benes, B., and Corbin, K.
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 6-11, January/February